The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is released from the small intestine following meal ingestion and potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Exogenous GIP has a poor insulinotropic effect in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). We investigated postprandial effects of endogenous GIP in patients with T2D using the GIP receptor antagonist, GIP(3-30)NH2. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 10 patients with T2D (mean±SD; HbA1c 6.9±3.2%; BMI 32.5±4.8 kg/m2) received 250-minute infusions of GIP(3-30)NH2 (1,200 pmol/kg/min) or placebo (saline) during two separate standardized liquid meal tests. Compared with placebo, GIP(3-30)NH2 infusion caused lower postprandial insulin (Δ%±SD; -19±15%, P=0.010) and C-peptide (-14±21%, P=0.021) responses (area under the curve) but had no effect on plasma glucagon (P=0.580) or glucose excursions (P=0.692). Postprandial inhibition of bone resorption (assessed by carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks) was ∼50% lower during GIP(3-30)NH2 infusion compared with placebo (P=0.005; Figure 1).

In conclusion, endogenous GIP slightly reduced postprandial insulin secretion with no effect on postprandial glucagon or glucose concentrations in patients with T2D. In contrast, endogenous GIP was a major determinant of postprandial suppression of bone resorption in these patients.


S. Stensen: None. L.S. Gasbjerg: Stock/Shareholder; Self; Antag Therapeutics. L.S. Krogh: None. A.H. Sparre-Ulrich: Other Relationship; Self; Antag Therapeutics. K. Skov-Jeppesen: None. M. Jensen: Employee; Self; Antag Therapeutics. B. Hartmann: None. T. Vilsbøll: None. J.J. Holst: Advisory Panel; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. M.M. Rosenkilde: Consultant; Self; Antag Therapeutics. M.B. Christensen: None. F.K. Knop: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, MedImmune, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Mundipharma, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. Consultant; Self; Amgen Inc., Carmot Therapeutics, Novo Nordisk A/S. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk A/S. Speaker's Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, MedImmune, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Mundipharma, Norgine, Novo Nordisk A/S.


Novo Nordisk Foundation; European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at