The USDA Dietary Guidelines recommend consumption of 3 servings of low/non-fat dairy per day. However, the effect of higher consumption and fat content in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unknown. This study evaluates the impact of higher consumption of full-fat (FF) and low-fat (LF) dairy on A1C and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with T2D.
We enrolled 111 patients with uncontrolled T2D (age 58.5±8.9 years, 46.8% female) who were consuming <3 servings of dairy/day and randomized them into 3 groups: control group maintained baseline dairy intake, LF group incorporated ≥3 servings of LF dairy/day, and FF group incorporated ≥3 servings of FF dairy/day. Participants were counseled by a registered dietitian to maintain their daily caloric intake and body weight. Patients maintained their diabetes, antihypertensive, and lipid lowering medications during the study. Participants were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. At baseline, T2D duration was 13.2±8.3 years, A1C 8.1±0.97%, body weight 93.3±18.9 Kg, BMI 32.47±5.68 Kg/m2, daily caloric intake 1925±553 kcal (43.4±7.0% carbohydrates, 37.8±5.5% total fat, 13.1±2.9% saturated fat, and 18.2±3.7% protein), LDL-C 84.3±27.4 mg/dL, TG 163.5±154.8 mg/dL, systolic BP 130±16 mmHg, and diastolic BP 71±9 mmHg. There were no differences between groups at baseline except for higher HOMA-IR in the FF group. At 6 months, % calories from saturated fat increased by 3.6% from baseline in the FF group (p<0.0001) and decreased by 1.9% in the LF group (p<0.05). The % calories from protein increased by 4.5% in the LF group (p<0.0001), but did not change in the FF group. There were no differences in total caloric intake, % calories from carbohydrates or protein, A1C, BMI, body weight, lipid parameters, or BP between the 3 groups.
Conclusion: When on isocaloric diet, increasing consumption of dairy to ≥3 servings/day has similar impact on A1C, lipid profile and BP in patients with T2D, irrespective of fat content.
J. Mitri: Research Support; Spouse/Partner; AbbVie Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support; Self; Kowa Pharmaceutical Europe Co. Ltd., National Dairy Council. Research Support; Spouse/Partner; Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Other Relationship; Self; National Dairy Council. S. Tomah: Stock/Shareholder; Self; Amarin Corporation. A. Mottalib: None. V. Salsberg: None. S. Ashrafzadeh: None. T. Elseaidy: None. A. Al Maradni: None. K. Alsibai: None. A.H. Eldib: None. M. Tasabehji: None. D.M. Pober: None. O. Hamdy: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Sanofi-Aventis. Consultant; Self; Abbott, Merck & Co., Inc. Research Support; Self; National Dairy Council. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Healthimation, LLC.
National Dairy Council