Objective: To develop and evaluate a smartphone-based short food frequency questionnaire.

Methods: We developed a digitalized short food frequency questionnaire adapted to the diet habit of the Chinese people. Seventy participants were recruited by quota sampling. Participants completed an FFQ face to face (1st FFQ) and a 3-day dietary record (DR) at the baseline for validation. A second FFQ (2nd FFQ) was completed 3 weeks later for reproducibility study, either face to face or on the phone.

Results: Sixty-seven participants completed the study per protocol and rendered eligible FFQs and 3-day DR. Twenty-one people were interviewed on the phone for 2nd FFQ and correlation coefficients of energy and nutrient intakes with 1st FFQ were 0.848∼0.959(all P<0.01). Difference between 2nd FFQ and DR was not significant either and correlation coefficients were 0.504∼0.878(all P<0.01). Correlation coefficients of energy and nutrient intakes between two FFQs ranged from 0.912 to 0.959(all P<0.001). Correlation coefficients of energy and nutrient intakes between 2nd FFQ and DR ranged from 0.584 to 0.861 (all P<0.01). The agreement rates of two FFQs for classifying food and nutrient intakes into same and adjacent quartiles were 65.67%∼74.63% and 25.37%∼31.34%, respectively; and between 2nd FFQ and DR, the corresponding agreement rates 38.81%-59.70% and 29.85%∼40.30%, respectively. Results of subgroup correlation analysis showed that reproducibility and validity coefficients were higher in females, well-educated group, and lower income group. We also carried out correlation analysis in diabetic patients. Correlation coefficients between two FFQs were 0.893∼0.947(P<0.01), between 2nd FFQ and DR were 0.661∼0.833(all P<0.01).

Conclusion: Our FFQ had satisfying reproducibility and validity in general and diabetic population and was ready to apply to remote surveys.


D. Yang: None. C. Wang: None. S. Luo: None. X. Zheng: None. Q. Lin: None. X. Wei: None. J. Yan: None. J. Weng: None.

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