Background: Participation in GA via HT is associated with improved attendance, satisfaction, and psychosocial functioning in YA with T1D. The effects of long-term participation are unknown.

Objective: Evaluate whether exposure to GA via HT improves psychosocial functioning in YA with T1D receiving care via HT.

Methods: Patients in the Colorado Young Adults with T1D (CoYoT1) prospective study of GA via HT self-selected into an initial year-long study phase comparing GA to usual care. Next, 58 new and returning patients were randomized to receive HT with or without GA for one year. Overall, 19 patients were exposed to HT alone for one year (GA0), 29 were exposed to HT with GA for one year (GA1), and 10 were exposed to HT with GA for two years (GA2). They completed the EQ-5D, Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D), Self-Efficacy in Diabetes (SED), and Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes in Adolescence (SMOD-A) measures.

Results: YA patients were 67% female, 86% white, and 11% Latinx. Regardless of attendance, greater exposure to GA was associated with greater communication and self-efficacy; and reduced pain, depressive symptoms, and distress at study end (See Figure 1). Overall, GA1 and GA2 reported better psychosocial functioning than GA0.

Conclusions: Greater exposure to GA via HT may improve psychosocial functioning in YA with T1D.


D.I. Bisno: None. M.W. Reid: None. C. Berget: Consultant; Self; Insulet Corporation, Medtronic. C.L. Cain: None. G.J. Klingensmith: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk Foundation. Stock/Shareholder; Spouse/Partner; Dexcom, Inc. J. Raymond: Other Relationship; Self; Insulet Corporation.


The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust

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