The effect of eating behavior and personality on glycemic outcomes in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has received little attention. Diabetes fatalism has furthermore been associated with uncontrolled glycemia. The aim of the present study is to explore the interrelationship of these constructs, which might uncover new insights for diabetes management. A total of 333 Lebanese patients (Age: 59 ± 13 years, 50.2% M) with T2DM were recruited. Eating behaviours (Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire), personality traits (NEO Five-Factor Inventory-3), and diabetes related fatalistic attitudes (Diabetes Fatalism Scale) were assessed. Regression analyses showed that neuroticism, restrained eating, and external eating predicted A1C. Total diabetes fatalism and its ‘despair’ subscale also predicted HbA1C. Multiple regression analysis showed that neuroticism, restrained eating, and fatalism subscale ‘despair’ predicted HbA1C levels and explained 5.4% of the variance (F(3,302) = 5.77, p = .001). A moderated moderation was run and revealed that the effect of conscientiousness on restrained eating was moderated by powerlessness (fatalism subscale) and neuroticism. At low neuroticism levels and with any powerlessness levels, conscientiousness did not exert a significant effect on restrained eating. However, at high levels of neuroticism with low or moderate levels of powerlessness, conscientiousness exerted significant effect on restrained eating (low powerlessness: B = .07, t = 4.39, p < .001; medium powerlessness: B = .04, t = 3.24, p < .01). On the other hand, when powerlessness was high, conscientiousness did not exert a significant effect on restrained eating.
In summary, the impact of conscientiousness on restrained eating, which in turn predicts HbA1C levels, is moderated by the belief of powerlessness and neuroticism in T2DM. These factors should be taken into account in the clinical practice. Further exploring similar constructs in T2DM to improve the quality of health care is warranted.
N. Farran: None. O.A. Sukkarieh-Haraty: None. D. Al Bakhour: None. M. Bassil: None.