Tobacco use confers unique risks to persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). This study examined associations between tobacco use and diabetes outcomes using the Type 1 Diabetes Exchange Registry. Participants (N=933) were adults who completed an emailed set of standardized self-report instruments that included items on tobacco use. Participants were on average (SD) 38 (16) years of age, 61% female, and 90% non-Hispanic white. The majority had never used tobacco products (55%, n = 515); 18% (n = 166) were current users and 27% (n = 252) were former users. After controlling for relevant covariates, diabetes self-care scores and frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose were lower among current users vs. never and former users, adjusted ps ≤ .01. Chart-extracted A1c values and participant-reported diabetes distress scores were higher among current users vs. never or former users, adjusted ps ≤ .001. BMI was lower among current smokers relative to never and former users, adjusted p = .04, but the odds of a nephropathy diagnosis or history of severe hypoglycemia or hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis did not differ by tobacco status. Among current users and relative to non-daily use, daily use was associated with significantly worse outcomes on diabetes self-care and diabetes distress scores and A1c values. These cross-sectional comparisons suggest that current tobacco use, particularly daily use, is associated with worse status on several clinical indicators outside BMI. Former users do not evidence these negative impacts on diabetes outcomes. Future research should assess whether better functional status on clinical indicators of diabetes management are causally related to successful smoking cessation. In this sample, smoking rates among individuals with T1D were higher than the national average, suggesting a need for evidence-based tobacco cessation strategies directed toward this high risk group.


C. Rash: None. J. Wagner: None. S.M. Alessi: None. N.C. Foster: None. W.V. Tamborlane: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Medtronic MiniMed, Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. M.A. Van Name: Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk Inc.

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