Introduction: Canagliflozin (CANA) slows progression of kidney disease, which may be at least partly mediated by improvements in tubular function. To test this hypothesis, we assessed effects of CANA on markers of tubular function and injury in the CANVAS trial.
Methods: Urine biomarkers of tubule function (β2-microglobulin [B2M], cystatin C, and uromodulin), tubular injury (interleukin-18 [IL-18], kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin [NGAL], and osteopontin), and inflammation (monocyte chemotactic protein-1 [MCP-1]) were measured at baseline and after 12 months. Biomarker concentrations were standardized for urine creatinine concentration. Differences between CANA and placebo treatment were assessed using ANCOVA models.
Results: We included 3723 CANVAS participants with available urine samples (eGFR 77.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 and median UACR 11.7 mg/g). Clinical characteristics and biomarker levels were well balanced between treatment groups at baseline. CANA compared to placebo significantly reduced urinary KIM-1, uromodulin, cystatin C, and osteopontin. It did not change NGAL or MCP-1 and increased IL-18 and B2M. Results were consistent in subgroups by baseline UACR except MCP-1, which decreased in patients with UACR ≥30 mg/g (Table).
Conclusion: CANA had variable effects on markers of tubule cell injury and function, decreasing 4, while 2 remained stable and 2 increased.
T. Sen: None. J. Li: Employee; Self; George Institute. B. Neal: Research Support; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. B.L. Neuen: Research Support; Self; Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Postgraduate Scholarship, Oxford Australia Clarendon Scholarship from the University of Oxford, University Postgraduate Award from UNSW Sydney. Other Relationship; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC. M.J. Jardine: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationship field. J. Ix: Research Support; Self; Baxter. M.G. Shlipak: Advisory Panel; Self; Cricket Health, Tai Diagnostics. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationshipfield. Y. Yavin: Employee; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC. N. Rosenthal: None. M.K. Hansen: Employee; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant; Self; AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc.
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