In EMPA-REG OUTCOME, empagliflozin (EMPA) reduced risk of cardiovascular (CV) death by 38% and hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) by 35% in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and CV disease. We aimed to identify phenotypes of patients with different risk of outcomes and to explore treatment effects across these groups. Overall, 7020 patients were treated with EMPA 25, 10 mg or placebo (PBO). For this post-hoc analysis, patients were randomly separated into training (2/3) and validation sets (1/3 of patients). Latent class analysis identified 3 clusters using 6639 patients with complete data. The association of clusters to CV death and CV death/HHF, and treatment effect of EMPA vs. PBO across clusters was explored by Cox regression. Cluster 1 included younger patients with shorter T2D duration. Cluster 2 included more women with non-coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD), and Cluster 3 older patients with advanced CAD. In the training set, risk of CV death varied across clusters (Cluster 2 vs. 1 HR 1.83 [95% CI 1.23, 2.71], Cluster 3 vs. 1 HR 1.86 [1.30, 2.67]) with similar pattern for CV death/HHF. Treatment effect of EMPA was consistent across clusters (Figure). Results were replicated in the validation set. We identified 3 phenotypes of patients with varying risk of outcomes. The consistent treatment effect across clusters reaffirms the robustness of CV death/HHF reduction with EMPA.


A. Sharma: Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Roche Pharma. Research Support; Self; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Merck & Co., Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. A. Ofstad: Employee; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. T. Ahmad: None. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. I. Zwiener: Employee; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. D.H. Fitchett: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Lilly Diabetes. Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk Inc. C. Wanner: Advisory Panel; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Merck & Co., Inc., Mundipharma International. Consultant; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., Sanofi Genzyme. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca. Other Relationship; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. J.T. George: Employee; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. S. Hantel: Employee; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG. N. Desai: None. R.J. Mentz: Consultant; Self; Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Sanofi. Research Support; Self; GlaxoSmithKline plc.


Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at