Background: Patients with diabetes need DSMS on the basis of systematic comprehensive management. However, there is no recommendation on how often regular follow-up visits patients should receive in China.

Objectives: To explore the effectiveness of frequency of visits in the Internet plus Diabetes Shared Care (IDSC) clinic on glycemic control among patients with type 2 diabetes followed-up more than 2 years.

Design: A retrospective single-center hospital-based propensity scores weighting (PSW) real-world analysis.

Methods: IDSC in Peking University First Hospital (PKUFH) provided individualized, systematic and continuous management with off-line and on-line support. Adult patients with type 2 diabetes who received at least second follow-up visit in IDSC clinic in the first semester of 2018 were eligible. All subjects were divided into three groups by actual follow-up visit times within 2018 Jan to 2019 Jan. Age, gender, diabetes duration, baseline metabolic profiles (BMI, HbA1c, LDL-c, BP), baseline Insulin usage and baseline costs of antidiabetic drugs were used as covariates for three-group PSW analysis to compare the average treatment effect in the population (ATE) of HbA1c in each group at 1-year and 2-year follow up.

Result: A total of 496 eligible subjects were included [Fv group (Four visits/y) n=330, Tv group (Three visits/y) n=128, TLv group (Two or Less visits/y) n=38]. After PSW, HbA1c of Fv group was improved in trend at 1-year follow up compared with Tv group (-0.25%, p=0.05) and TLv group (-0.34%, p=0.06) but was significantly improved at 2-year follow up (-0.34%, p=0.01 for Tv group; -0.55%, p=0.008 for TLv group). There was no significant difference in HbA1c between the Tv group and TLv groups at neither 1-year and 2-year follow-up.

Conclusions: Our findings indicate that regularly followed-up in IDSC clinic at least 4 times/year could efficiently improve glycemic control of among patients with type 2 diabetes.


A. Li: None. W. Zhang: Employee; Self; iHealth Labs. X. Guo: None. J. Zhang: None.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at