Aim: To examine the association between elevated maternal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) during pregnancy and obesity in the offspring.
Methods: For women without pre-existing diabetes in 2 zones in Alberta, Canada with births between 2005 - 2013, maternal data were linked to offspring’s birth registry and preschool immunization records (w/height, weight) between 2009-2017. A 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) followed by a 75-g OGTT was used to diagnose GDM. Pregnancies were grouped as follows: 1) GCT negative; 2) OGTT negative; 3) elevated FPG on the OGTT; and 4) elevated 1-hour and/or 2-hour OGTT only. WHO criteria were used to identify children who were overweight, obese, or extremely obese.
Results: Of 79,156 pregnancies, 80.3% were GCT negative, 14.7% were OGTT negative, 1.3% had elevated FPG, and 3.7% had elevated post-load glucose only. Both LGA and pre-school obesity rates were highest in pregnancies with abnormal FPG (Figure). Relative to children of GCT negative pregnancies, children of pregnancies with elevated maternal FPG had adjusted odds ratio (aOR, 95% CI) 3.0, (2.6-3.6) for LGA; and aOR 1.3 (1.1 - 1.6) for overweight, aOR 2.4 (1.9 - 3.0) for obesity, aOR 3.5 (2.7 - 4.7) for extreme obesity at preschool age.
Conclusion: The effect of elevated maternal FPG in pregnancy on offspring weight extends to early childhood. These children may be candidates for early pediatric weight and health interventions.
P. Kaul: None. A. Savu: None. L.E. Moore: None. R.O. Yeung: Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Novo Nordisk Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Merck & Co., Inc. E.A. Ryan: None.
Canadian Institutes of Health Research; University Hospital Foundation