Purpose: Childhood obesity is a major risk factor for many chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Plasma calprotectin is elevated in various inflammatory disorders, including obesity-associated low-grade inflammation. We measured the level of plasma calprotectin in obese children and assessed its association with key metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers.
Methods: The study included a total of 76 children (age 9.8±2.43 years), which were grouped according to the body mass index (BMI) into 3 groups: normal-weight (BMI <85th percentile; n=12), over-weight (BMI 85-94th percentile; n=2) and obese (BMI ≥95th percentile, n=62). The plasma levels of metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers were quantified using commercially available ELISA kits.
Results: Calprotectin was directly correlated with the BMI (r=0.4, P=0.001, n=69), BMI percentile (r=0.5, P <0.0001, n=69), and BMI Z-score (r=0.5, P<0.0001, n=69). Calprotectin was directly correlated with body fat (%; r=0.3, P=0.02, n=63) and fat to muscle ratio (r=0.32, P=0.02, n=50) but inversely correlated with muscle (%) (r= ? 0.3, P=0.03, n=50). Calprotectin was inversely correlated with adiponectin (r= ? 0.3, P=0.04, n=57) but directly correlated with leptin (r=0.4, P=0.0005, n=75), and leptin to adiponectin ratio (r=0.45, P=0.0005, n=56). Calprotectin was directly correlated with CRP (r=0.4, P=0.003, n=54), IL-6 (r=0.44, P<0.0001, n=76) and MCP-1 (r=0.3, P=0.02, n=76). Calprotectin was also directly correlated with resistin (r=0.3, P=0.02, n=76). Children with obesity (n=62) had significantly (P<0.0001) higher levels of calprotectin compared to those with normal-weight (n=12). In the obese state, males (n=30) had significantly (P=0.03) higher levels of calprotectin compared to females (n=32).
Conclusion: Plasma calprotectin is elevated in children with obesity and is correlated with key metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers.
A. Hasan: None. S.P. Kochumon: None.
Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science (RA-2011-018)