Objective: Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and TMAO levels in peripheral/cord blood of GDM mothers increased. Diabetes primes neutrophils to produce neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), but it has not been reported in GDM. We determined the relationship between NETs and GDM, and explored potential role of TMAO.
Methods: Maternal peripheral blood was collected during OGTT tests, and cord blood and placenta were collected during delivery. Plasma concentrations of cell-free double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) were compared between GDM and control mothers and association analysis was performed. Expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in placental tissues of GDM and control mothers was examined. Neutrophils from the blood of healthy donors were used to observe effects of TMAO on NETs formation. The effect of TMAO on human placental extravillous trophoblast cell line HTR-8/Svneo was examined.
Results: Compared with controls, plasma concentrations of dsDNA in peripheral blood and cord blood were significantly increased in GDM mothers. Association analysis found that concentrations of dsDNA in peripheral and cord blood plasma were positively correlated with BMI and blood glucose levels, but not blood pressure. In addition, the placental thickness was positively correlated with dsDNA levels in cord blood plasma. MPO expression in the placental tissues of GDM mothers was also significantly higher than that of control mothers. TMAO-treated neutrophils could resist the formation of NETs stimulated by PMA or LPS, and TMAO promotes the proliferation, migration, invasion and angiogenesis of the cells.
Conclusion: The formation of NETs was increased in GDM, and was positively correlated with BMI and blood glucose. TMAO could inhibit NETs formation and promote invasion and angiogenesis of human placental trophoblast cells, which may be involved in the development of the placenta.
X. Lin: None. X. He: None. X. Xiao: None.