Objective: Effective contraception use in women with diabetes until glucose control is achieved is one of the key factors for optimizing pregnancy outcomes in this high-risk population. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether contraception utilization varied by presence of maternal diabetes.

Methods: Data from the 2011-2017 National Survey of Family Growth were analyzed using cross-sectional methodology. Women age 18-44 were included in the analysis. Maternal diabetes was defined as either the presence of pre-gestational diabetes or diagnosis of gestational diabetes. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were run to evaluate the association between the use of contraception by contraception type (sterilization, long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), other hormonal method, barrier method and none) and maternal diabetes status.

Results: A total of 28,454 women were included in the analysis, with 3,003 (10.5%) women with diabetes during pregnancy. Women with diabetes were less likely to use LARC (7.2% vs. 10.7%) or barrier methods (14.4% vs. 17.6%) compared to controls (p<0.001 for both comparisons). The utilization rates of sterilization and other hormonal methods did not differ between the groups. In multivariable logistic regression, controlling for maternal age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, insurance, education, marital status, family income and diagnosis of sexually transmitted infection, maternal diabetes remained to be significantly associated with lower utilization rates of LARC (aOR=0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97) and barrier methods (aOR=0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97).

Conclusions: In this cohort, women with diabetes were less likely to choose LARC and barrier methods for contraception. As LARC is one of the more effective and safest options of contraception in this high-risk population, further research is required to understand the causes behind this variation in contraception utilization.


S.L. Walker: None. R. Anguzu: None. L.E. Egede: None. A. Palatnik: None.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.