Previous studies have shown adolescents with T1D diagnosed prior to menarche have an older age of menarche compared with those diagnosed after menarche and to the general population, and menstrual irregularity in women with T1D is more common than in those without T1D, suggesting that T1D may be associated with reproductive abnormalities. In this study, multiple regression models were used to explore the relationship between clinical factors and markers of reproductive health in 3528 women >18 years (mean age 39±17 years) in the T1D Exchange Clinic Registry who had a 5-year follow-up. Average age of menarche was 13±2 years, and 13% reported irregular menstrual periods unrelated to pregnancy or menopause. Younger age at T1D diagnosis was significantly associated with older age at menarche (p=0.001) after adjustment for race/ethnicity, current BMI, and report of severe hypoglycemia (SH). Having an evaluation for infertility was reported by 6% of participants and was associated with lower mean hemoglobin A1c (A1c; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.67-0.91 for a 1% increase in A1c) and current use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.16). Seeking an infertility evaluation was not significantly associated with age at T1D diagnosis, autoantibody status, or current menstrual regularity. Additionally, having an abnormal infertility evaluation was not associated with mean A1c (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62-1.17) or current use of CGM (OR 1.62, 95% CI 0.91-2.91). There were also no factors that were both clinically and statistically significantly associated with miscarriage or problems conceiving a child. These results suggest that women with T1D who are likely to seek infertility evaluations may be more determined to maintain optimal glycemic control with technology such as CGM, or that concern about fertility may drive the decision to use CGM and lower A1c. This study highlights the need for prospective studies to assess the impact of T1D on fertility in women.
A. Erkin-Cakmak: None. R. Bailey: None. P. Calhoun: Stock/Shareholder; Self; Dexcom, Inc. H. Cakmak: None. J.C. Wong: Consultant; Self; pH Pharma. Research Support; Self; Dexcom, Inc.
The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust (G-2016PG-T1D053)