Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have high rates of gestational diabetes (GDM). The Pregnancy And Neonatal Diabetes Outcomes in Remote Australia (PANDORA) study is a prospective longitudinal cohort of women with type 2 diabetes (T2D), GDM or normoglycemia in pregnancy in the Northern Territory, Australia. In this analysis we report progression to prediabetes and T2D at 2.5 years [range 2.1, 3] postpartum in a subgroup of Aboriginal and Europid women with GDM and normoglycemia in pregnancy (n=337). Women with pre-existing T2D were excluded. Data were analysed using Fisher’s exact tests. Among Aboriginal women with GDM we assessed predictions for progression using multivariate logistic regression. Aboriginal women with GDM (n=111) were younger than Europid women with GDM (n=104) (29 years (SD 5.9) vs. 32 (5.6) p<0.01), with similar first trimester BMI (28.9 kg/m2 (SD 7.2) vs. 28.5 (6.7) p=0.64). Of Aboriginal women with GDM, 24 (22%) progressed to T2D and 12 (11%) to prediabetes. Of Aboriginal women with normoglycemia (n=60), 1 (2%) progressed to T2D and 1 (2%) to prediabetes (p<0.01 for combined outcome vs. GDM women). Of Europid women with GDM, none progressed to T2D and 4 (4%) to prediabetes and of those with normoglycemia (n=62) none progressed to diabetes or prediabetes (p=0.09 vs. GDM women). Among Aboriginal women with GDM, factors associated with postpartum diabetes or prediabetes were age (OR 1.11, 1.03-1.2) and, after adjusting for age: severity of GDM (higher fasting plasma glucose (per 1 mmol/L OR 2.11, 1.23-3.62), use of insulin (OR 3.20, 1.35-7.6)) and higher first trimester BMI (per 3 kg/m2 OR 1.22, 1.01-1.47). Not smoking was protective (OR 0.35, 0.14-0.90), although any breastfeeding at 6-months postpartum was not (OR 0.95, 0.36-2.47). To our knowledge this is the only prospective study of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women with GDM. We report the highest rates in the world of T2D after GDM at 2.5 years postpartum, highlighting a need for targeted interventions in this high-risk population.
A. Wood: None. J. Boyle: None. F. Barzi: None. E.L. Barr: None. M.J.I. Hare: None. A. Titmuss: None. E. Death: None. M. Kirkwood: None. A. Simmonds: None. E.M. Moore: None. J. Oats: None. D. McIntyre: Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. P.Z. Zimmet: None. A.D. Brown: None. J.E. Shaw: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Mylan, Sanofi. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Mylan. L.J. Maple-Brown: None.