Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationships between the nutritional characteristics of pregnant women and the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and Gestational Glucose Intolerance (GGIT).
Materials and Method: Women were investigated for GDM during the 24th to 28th weeks of pregnancy. According to the two-step diagnostic approach, women with normal glucose tolerance (normal), those with only 1 high glucose (GGIT) and those with at least 2 high values (GDM) in OGTT were included in the study. There was 60 pregnant women in each group (mean age 31.6±5.4; range 19-46 years). Demographic and clinical characteristics of the participants were questioned and a 3-day food consumptions record were evaluated with BEBIS program.
Results: The mean weight, BMI and daily fiber intake in GDM group were significantly higher than the normal group. In the GDM and GGIT groups, the mean age, weight, daily carbohydrate (CHO) and protein intakes, and family history of diabetes were higher than those with normal group. Moreover, in the GDM group, daily fat intake was also significantly higher than the normal and GGIT groups. According to the separate models of logistic regression analysis; the age; daily protein, CHO and fat consumptions; having the first pregnancy and higher pre-pregnancy BMI (>25 kg/m2) were associated with increased likelihood of GDM. Similarly, the age, daily protein consumption, history of giving birth to a macrosomic baby and current smoking were positively linked with the risk of GGIT.
Conclusion: Women’s nutritional habits (excessive CHO, fat and especially protein consumptions), phenotypic characteristics, family history of diabetes and poor obstetric history are similarly related to the risk of developing GDM and GGIT. Our results showed that in all women, particularly in those at high-risk for GDM who are planning pregnancy, a special attention should be given to general health and balanced diet, starting from pre-pregnancy.
M. Yabaci: None. I. Satman: None. C. Idiz: None. F. Turker: None. A. Yuksel: None. B. Omer: None. B. Demirel: None. E. Ozer: None.