Background: Increasing prevalence of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and obesity along with declining age of onset of type 2 diabetes, often create a diagnostic error in subtyping patients with young onset diabetes. Correct diagnosis of type of diabetes in this age group has clinical implications for management and longterm prognosis. In this study, we aimed to profile all consecutive young onset diabetes patients with respect to their clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics.
Material and Methods: In this prospective study, conducted at a tertiary facility, all patients with diabetes onset between 18-30 years and diabetes duration less than 5 years were included. Assessment included detailed clinical and biochemical evaluation, autoantibody testing, c-peptide and genetic screening.
Results: Total 100 patients were studied, out of which 80% were males and 55% were obese. Mean age of onset and median duration of diabetes were 24.98 ± 3.27 years and 18.0 months respectively. Initial clinical presentation was weight loss and osmotic symptoms in 58%, diabetic ketoacidosis in 5% and 25% patients were incidentally diagnosed. 20.8% of clinically autoimmune diabetes patients had negative antibody testing, 35.5% of clinically nonautoimmune diabetes had positive antibody testing. Overall, evidence of autoimmunity and decreased insulin secretion were found in 45% and 45% patients respectively. Ultrasound abdomen revealed small/atrophic pancreas in 9% of patients out of which nearly half did not had history of pancreatitis. Three patients were detected as MODY (1 = HNF1A and 2 = PAX4 mutations). One patient had Wolfram like syndrome (WFS1 mutation), 30 patients had variants of unknown significance.
Conclusion: Evidence of autoimmunity was seen in 45%, monogenic diabetes in 4%, obesity in 55% of the study population. Higher incidence and aggressive nature of diabetes in young individuals are probably due to contributing effect of autoimmunity accompanied by increasing prevalence of obesity.
P.K. Reddy: None. G. Jevalikar: None. A.A. Singhal: None. P. Kaur: None. A. Gupta: None. S.K. Mishra: None. J.S. Wasir: None. M.S. Kuchay: Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Novo Nordisk A/S. B. Bansal: None. K. Farooqui: None. H. Kaur: None. A. Mithal: Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Johnson & Johnson, Lilly Diabetes, Novo Nordisk A/S.