Hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk for sarcopenia. The concurrence of hyperglycemia and sarcopenia may inflate the risk for falls, fractures, and mortality. On average, Americans consume more than the individual protein recommendation (0.8 g/kg/d); however, a large proportion of adults still consume less than recommended levels, which may have negative health implications. Therefore, this study examined the individual protein intake in a nationally representative sample of adults (31+ years) with and without type 2 diabetes to explore protein intakes (g/d) and diet quality (Healthy Eating Index-2015). Data were examined from 23,487 non-institutionalized adults from the 2005-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Hemoglobin A1c (%) was used to classify glycemic status: nondiabetes (<5.7%); prediabetes (5.7-6.4%); diabetes (≥6.5%). Dietary data were collected using 24-hour dietary recalls. Participants were further categorized by mean individual protein intake and either ’met’ or ’did not meet’ the protein recommendation of 0.8 g/kg/d. For those without diabetes, 35.9% did not meet protein recommendations, with more adults with prediabetes (46.8%) and diabetes (51.3%) below recommended intakes on the day of record. Adults below the protein recommendation consumed significantly more carbohydrates (13-14 g more across all glycemic groups; p < 0.001) and had worse HEI-2015 diet quality scores across all glycemic groups (nondiabetes: 50.4 v 53.5; prediabetes: 49.9 v 52.8; diabetes: 49.9 v 52.6) compared to those who met the protein recommendation (p < 0.001). Adults with diabetes may have an increased risk for muscle loss, thus assessing and addressing patterns of gaps in protein intakes during patient interactions may help prevent sarcopenia and its associated complications.
S. Thomas: Employee; Self; Abbott. S.M. Fanelli: None. O. Kelly: Employee; Self; Abbott. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Abbott. J.L. Krok-Schoen: None. C.A. Taylor: Research Support; Self; Abbott Laboratories.