Background: Carotenoid are strong antioxidants rich in fruits and vegetables. Plasma carotenoids are good markers of fruit and vegetable intakes. We aimed to investigate the associations of plasma carotenoid levels with uric acid concentrations and hyperuricemia.

Method: A cross-sectional study using data from United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2001 to 2006 was conducted. After excluding missing data of uric acid and carotenoids levels, 19124 participants aged 0-85 were included in the study. Associations of carotenoids with uric acid or hyperuricemia were conducted using multivariate linear regression or logistic regression.

Results: In the study, 1992 participants had hyperuricemia. After adjustments of age, gender, race, education, cotinine, physical activity, alcohol drinking, energy intake, body mass index, C-reactive protein, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (nonHDL-C), HDL-C and hypertension, each unit increase of a-carotene, trans-b-carotene, cis-b-carotene, trans-lycopene, combined lutein/zeaxanthin, and b-cryptoxanthin was associated with 33.01 (95% CI= -50.57 to -15.44), 10.59 (95% CI= -14.76 to -6.41), 169.40 (95% CI=-235.98 to -102.83), 13.05 (95% CI=-24.53 to -1.57), 27.99 (95% CI=-43.84 to -12.14), and 36.14 (95% CI=-55.16 to -17.12) mmol/L decrease of uric acid, respectively and odds ratios of above carotenoids and hyperuricemia were 0.05 (95% CI= 0.01 to 0.5), 0.31 (95% CI= 0.14 to 0.68), <0.001 (95% CI=<0.001 to 0.003), 0.37 (95% CI=0.20 to 0.66), 0.22 (95% CI=0.07 to 0.77), and 36.14 (95% CI=0.02 to 0.20) respectively.

Conclusion: Carotenoids were inversely associated with uric acid levels and hyperuricemia risk. Higher plasma carotenoids may be beneficial against hyperuricemia. Increasing carotenoids concentrations, for instance by fruits and vegetables intake, as a novel preventive treatment for hyperuricemia deserves further investigation.


N. Zhang: None. N. Zhang: None. L. Chen: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk A/S.

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