Objective: Early prevention of renal dysfunction progression and cardiovascular disease is important in diabetes. We aimed to determine the risk factors for renal dysfunction and cardiovascular disease among medical insurance subscribers between 40 and 74 years of age in Japan.

Methods: This retrospective study involved 1585 subjects, including 97 patients with diabetes, who had undergone a specific health checkup in 2013 and 2019. The primary composite outcome included decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by ≥30%, increase in urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) by ≥30 mg/gCre, and increase in the Framingham Risk Score by ≥5%. We categorized the subjects into groups with and without these outcomes. Univariate analysis was conducted using Welch’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and Fisher’s exact test. Based on the univariate analysis, principle component and logistic analyses were performed to determine the predictive risk factors.

Results: Significant between-group differences were noted in terms of age, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, AST, ALT, γ-GTP, HbA1c, serum creatinine, eGFR, urine creatinine, UACR, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, sex, antihypertensive medication, history of anemia, diabetes, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight change, exercise habits, the will to improve and others. Logistic analysis showed that age (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.04 [1.02-1.06], P <0.0001), HDL-C (0.97 [0.96-0.98], P <0.0001), HbA1c (1.35 [1.12 -1.63], P =0.0015), and male sex (3.90 [2.97-5.11], P <0.0001) were predictive risk factors.

Conclusion: Lower HDL-C and higher HbA1c were detected as the risk factors for patients with diabetes and without diabetes. The results of this study indicate that the harmful effects of hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia may have started before the patients actively exhibit metabolic disorders.


R. Terayama: None. M. Koshizaka: None. T. Shibata: None. T. Ban: None. Y. Maezawa: None. K. Yokote: Research Support; Self; Astellas Pharma Inc., Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly Japan K.K., Kowa Company, Ltd., Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mochida Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co. Ltd., Novartis Pharma K.K., Novo Nordisk Inc., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Pfizer Japan Inc., Sanofi K.K., Shionogi & Co., Ltd., Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd., Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Teijin Pharma Limited. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Abbott, Astellas Amgen, AstraZeneca K.K., Bayer Inc., FUJIFILM Pharmaceuticals U.S.A., Inc., Kaken Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.