Objectives: The study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism in male patients with latent autoimmune diabetes (LADA) and classic type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and explore risk factors for hypogonadism in those patients.

Methods: Form 1 January 2016 and 9 October 2019, a total of 399 male patients with LADA(n=71), T1DM (n=72) and T2DM (n=256) respectively were recruited from the endocrinology department in Shanghai Tenth People’s Hospital for this cross-sectional study. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone.

Results: The mean age of male patients with LADA, T1DM and T2DM was 54.44 ± 1.54, 47.50±1.83 and 56.55±0.74 years old, respectively. The serum total testosterone concentration in the LADA group was similar to the T1DM group, but higher than those in the T2DM group. The rate of hypogonadism in the LADA group, T1DM group, T2DM group were 1.6%, 2.4% and 20.8%, respectively (p <0.05). Total testosterone was positively correlated with SHBG and HDL-c, and negatively correlated with uric acid, HbA1c, BMI, SBP, DBP and TG in all, LADA, T1DM and T2DM groups. Logistic regression indicate that after adjusting for age, duration of diabetes, smoking, drinking and family history of diabetes, the independent risk factors for developing hypogonadism in male with diabetes were BMI (OR=1.31, P<0.05), C-peptide (OR=1.88, P<0.05), HDL-c (OR=0.41,P<0.05) and SBP (OR=1.01,P<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that in a population of admission to a large urban hospital in China, the rate of hypogonadism was lower in LADA patients and T1DM patients than T2DM patients. High levels of BMI, C-peptide, SBP and low level of HDL-c are risk factors for developing hypogonadism in male with diabetes.


M. Cai: None. J. Gao: None. C. Sheng: None. H. Li: None. S. Qu: None. M. Zhang: None.


National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC1314100); National Natural Science Foundation of China (81970677)

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at http://www.diabetesjournals.org/content/license.