Gluconeogenesis from amino acids contributes significantly to hepatic glucose production and hyperglycemia in diabetes. Alanine transaminases (ALT) catalyze the bi-directional interconversion of alanine to pyruvate with concomitant interconversion of α-ketoglutarate to glutamate. ALT1 is cytosolic while ALT2 is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. The mRNA expression and protein abundance of ALT1 and 2 was significantly increased in liver of db/db or diet induced obese mice compared to lean controls. The expression of ALT2 was also increased in obese humans compared to lean controls and was downregulated following bariatric surgery. The increase in hepatic ALT2 expression in diabetic mice was caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and mediated by activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Indeed, inhibition of ATF4 reduced ALT2 expression in liver of db/db mice. Consistent with enhanced use of amino acids in gluconeogenesis, db/db and diet-induced obese mice had elevated blood glucose concentrations following IP administration of L-alanine or glutamine. ALT2 silencing in liver had no effect on glucose concentrations in lean mice, but alleviated alanine-induced hyperglycemia in db/db mice; likely by reducing the incorporation of alanine and/or glutamine into newly synthesized glucose. Plasma alanine tended to rise and glutamate significantly increased in db/db mice with ALT2 silencing whereas concentrations of the branched chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine decreased or tended to decrease.
In summary, our results are consistent with a significant role for ALT2 in hepatic gluconeogenesis from amino acids and in the regulation of blood glucose levels in obesity and diabetes.
M.R. Martino: None. M. Gutierrez Aguilar: None. K.S. McCommis: None. J. Yoshino: None. B.N. Finck: Advisory Panel; Self; Cirius Therapeutics. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Cirius Therapeutics.
National Institutes of Health (R01DK117657)