Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with lower bone mineral density (BMD) and elevated fracture risk. In this study, we examined risk factors for lower BMD in the DCCT/EDIC study, a well-characterized cohort of older adults with T1D. Dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were obtained in 1,058 study participants who had been followed for > 30 years. Cumulative glycemic control was defined as the time-weighted mean HbA1c from DCCT baseline (1983-1989) to the DXA visit. Levels of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) were assessed by skin intrinsic fluorescence (SIF) in 2010-2011. Kidney disease (sustained eGFR<60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or ESRD), retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy and cardiac autonomic neuropathy were assessed. Associations between risk factors and total hip and femoral neck BMD were analyzed using multiple linear regression models.
Mean age at DXA was 59±7 years; 48% of participants were female. Mean BMD for total hip and femoral neck was 0.921±0.149 and 0.757±0.129 g/cm2, respectively; 6% were osteoporotic, and 45% were osteopenic. Higher mean HbA1c, higher SIF, and kidney disease, but not retinopathy or neuropathy, were independently associated with lower BMD at the total hip in univariate and multivariable analyses, with similar results for femoral neck (Table).
In conclusion, poorer glycemic control, AGE accumulation, and kidney disease are independent risk factors for lower hip BMD in older adults with T1D.
A.V. Schwartz: None. J.C. Backlund: None. I. deBoer: Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Consultant; Self; George Clinical, Goldfinch Bio, Ironwood Pharmaceuticals. M. Rubin: Research Support; Self; Amgen, Ascendis Pharma, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. A.R. Barnie: None. K. Farrell: Stock/Shareholder; Spouse/Partner; Dexcom, Inc., Tandem Diabetes Care. V.R. Trapani: None. N.S. Gregory: None. A. Wallia: Research Support; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk Inc., UnitedHealth Group. J.M. Lachin: Board Member; Self; Tolerion, Inc. B.H. Braffett: None. R. Gubitosi-Klug: None.
National Institutes of Health; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (5U01DK094157, RES514948)