Mutations in HNF1A cause Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (HNF1A-MODY). Carriers are normoglycemic in childhood, but with age, they develop hyperglycemia associated with insulin secretory defects and beta cell dysfunction. Although endogenous glucose production has been reported, glucagon in HNF1A-MODY has been less explored. Patients respond well to low dose sulfonylureas such as gliclazide, which increases insulin secretion independent of glucose but may predispose to hypoglycemia. We aimed to investigate whether low dose gliclazide had an effect on glucagon secretion in HNF1A-MODY. Additionally, we explored the potential of GLP-1 to normalize hormone secretion using in vivo and in vitro models of HNF1A deficiency. A 75g oral glucose tolerance test was performed in 7 MODY patients before and 72h after stopping gliclazide. Glucose rise was greater off gliclazide (p=0.003), while c-peptide and glucagon levels were similar between the groups. When adjusting for glucose levels during the OGTT, the change from baseline glucagon levels (Δ glucagon/glucose ratio) showed a significant decrease in those taking gliclazide (p=0.048), while there was no difference in Δ c-peptide/glucose ratio. Hnf1a-/- mice compared to WT mice are hyperglycemic, have decreased plasma insulin levels and hyperglucagonemia that was not suppressed after a glucose challenge (p=0.008). Furthermore, induction of the HNF1A variant Pro291fsInsC in rat INS1 cells reduced insulin and increased glucagon secretion, both of which were improved by GLP-1 treatment. Using the TIGER database we found HNF1A to be heterogeneously expressed in human islets, and siHNF1A reduced insulin secretion at high glucose. Collectively, these findings indicate that HNF1A is also essential for the regulation of glucagon secretion and glucose homeostasis. The mechanism by which GLP-1 normalizes insulin and glucagon secretion needs further investigation but could contribute to a better understanding of treatment response in HNF1A-MODY.
C. Saponaro: None. A. Acosta-Montalvo: None. L. Anguelova: None. J. Thevenet: None. M. Chiral: None. G. Pasquetti: None. A. Piron: None. M. Cnop: None. V. Gmyr: None. J. Prehn: None. J.A. Kerr-Conte: None. F. Pattou: None. M. Pontoglio: None. K.R. Owen: None. I. Spiliotis: None. C. Bonner: None.
European Foundation for the Study of Diabetes/Lilly European Diabetes Research Programme; Oxford Health Sciences Research Committee (1233)