Introduction: Metabolic surgery (MS) results in durable resolution of hyperglycemia in ∼50% of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) account for more than 90% of all metabolic surgeries, and both have been demonstrated to have greater efficacy when compared to intensive medical and lifestyle therapy (IMT) to improve glycemic control. However, a subset of patients following MS exhibit inadequate weight loss, poor glycemic control, or both. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify novel biomarkers of biochemical resolution of T2D following IMT and MS.
Methods: Plasma samples from ninety patients (49.9±7.6 years, 57.7% female) randomly assigned to receive either IMT (n=30), RYGB (n=30) or SG (n=30) were retrospectively analyzed and quantified by untargeted metabolomic analysis using UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry at baseline (PRE) and 24 months (POST) of treatment.
Results: We identified 384 metabolites altered by RYGB, SG and IMT treatment. 2-hydroxybutyrate was significantly decreased following all 3 interventions with a greater decrease in SG and RYGB at POST (p≤0.05). Pyruvate was significant lower in the IMT and RYGB group (p≤0.05), but not in SG at POST (vs. PRE). Markers of fatty acid metabolism, including acetylcarnitine and 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), were also decreased following the SG intervention (p≤0.05). Several primary and secondary bile acid metabolites were significantly increased after RYGB compared to SG.
Conclusion: We identified a novel metabolomic fingerprint characterizing the longer-term adaptations to IMT, RYGB, and SG. Notably, the metabolomic profile of both RYGB and SG procedures were distinct, suggesting that the roughly equivalent weight loss is achieved by divergent mechanisms.
W.S. Dantas: None. C.L. Axelrod: None. A. Hari: None. S. Kashyap: Other Relationship; Self; GI Dynamics Inc. P. Schauer: Advisory Panel; Self; GI Dynamics Inc. Consultant; Self; Ethicon US, LLC, Medtronic. Research Support; Self; Ethicon US, LLC, Medtronic. J.P. Kirwan: None.