Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is the condition in which an individual has both sarcopenia, the progressive age related loss of muscle mass and function, as well as obesity. This is significant as both are regarded as potential risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases and having them concomitantly may potentiate their adverse health effects. This increases the importance of earlier detection of sarcopenic obese patients, which has proven difficult as the exact definition of sarcopenia is not agreed upon. We sought to establish a serum biomarker that would serve as a proxy for sarcopenia. Serum creatinine was hypothesized to be a suitable proxy as it is has been shown to correlate with lean body mass. We performed a prospective longitudinal cohort study on 76 obese male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with an age range of 8-20 years old. Sarcopenic obesity was defined at a body fat % greater than 27 and a serum creatinine level less than 0.8mg/dl. Body weight, blood pressure, blood chemistry, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose and fasting insulin were all measured at least bi-annually. A subgroup of 34 monkeys underwent DEXA scans in order to determine lean body mass, body fat %, and fat mass to correlate to serum creatinine. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software. Of the 76 obese male monkeys studied 58 were categorized as obese only while 18 meet criteria for sarcopenic obesity. In the obese only category 14% (8/58) went on to develop T2DM versus 39% (7/18) in the SO group. In the subgroup of 34 monkeys that underwent DEXA scanning serum creatinine was positively correlated with lean body mass p<0.001 and negatively correlated with age p<0.001. Neither fat mass not body fat % was found to significantly correlate with serum creatinine.
In conclusion lower serum creatine levels were associated with increased risk of developing T2DM in prospectively longitudinally studied obese male rhesus monkeys and may serve as a proxy for sarcopenia.
D. Bracero: None. B.C. Hansen: None.