Islet β-cell inflammation, dysfunction, and death are characteristic of diabetes. 12/15-Lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) produces 12-HETE and is found activated under conditions of insulin resistance and systemic inflammation. 12-HETE acts as an inflammatory mediator that promotes β-cell dysfunction and death through oxidative stress. Since 12-HETE has been shown to bind the G-protein coupled receptor 31 (GPR31), we hypothesized that this binding activates pathways leading to β-cell dysfunction. To test our hypothesis, we screened primary islets and β-cell lines for the presence of GPR31 and studied islets and glucose homeostasis in Gpr31b-/- mice. We observed that GPR31 is present in human and mouse islets, and the mouse β cell-derived cell line (βTC3). Consistent with a role in inflammation, GPR31 expression was increased upon stimulation with a cocktail of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β). We also created a germline knockout of the gene encoding GPR31 (Gpr31b) in mice. Similar to mice with deletion of the gene for 12/15-LOX (Alox15-/-), Gpr31b-/- mice were viable and healthy, with body weight and glucose tolerance indistinguishable from control littermates. To mimic conditions of insulin resistance in vitro, we treated isolated islets Gpr31-/- and control littermates with 10 µM S961, an insulin receptor inhibitor. Treated control islets showed an expected decrease in β-cell identity genes (Ins1/2, Pdx1), genes encoding antioxidant enzymes (Gpx1), and an increase in genes associated with ER stress (Chop, sXbp1). In contrast, Gpr31b-/- islets expression of these genes was resistant to S961. Compared to control littermates, Gpr31-/- mice were resistant to glucose intolerance induced by the β-cell inflammatory toxin streptozotocin. Together these data support the hypothesis that the major product of 12/15-LOX, 12-HETE, acts via GPR31 in promoting β-cell dysfunction in the setting of insulin resistance and inflammation.
M. Hernandez-Perez: None. I. Haider: None. R.M. Anderson: None. S.A. Tersey: None. R. Mirmira: Advisory Panel; Self; Hibercell, Sigilon Therapeutics, Veralox Therapeutics. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Eli Lilly and Company.
JDRF (3-PDF-2019-750-A-N); National Institutes of Health (T32DK064466, R01DK105588, (P30DK097512)