The association of adiponectin, apelin, visfatin and vaspin with different glycaemic states (normal glucose tolerance (NGT), (impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes (T2D)) and in the presence of periodontits were studied in saliva and blood (serum) samples. The utility of saliva and serum in measuring these adipokines was also compared. Prescreening was done to identify persons with ≥ 3 risk factors for T2D among; age 35 -55 years, overweight/obesity, high waist circumference, family history of T2D, hypertension or sedentary habits. They were then categorised as having no diabetes (NGT + IGT, Group A) and having diabetes (T2D, Group B) based on oral glucose tolerance test. Presence of periodontitis was assessed by a periodontist. Samples were analysed using ELISA. Of the 615 persons screened, 136 (22.1%) had 3 or more risk factors. Ninety (14.6%) persons (NGT (n = 48), IGT (n = 17) T2D (n = 25)) were enrolled. Concentrations of adipokines in groups A and B are presented in the table. Higher salivary vaspin and lower visfatin were observed in the presence of periodontitis. The utility of serum and saliva in the measurement of adipokines for diabetes vary considerably. In Asian Indians, lower adiponectin and higher visfatin in serum and increased salivary visfatin and apelin are useful biomarkers of diabetes, illustrating the involvement of inflammation in the pathogenesis of T2D.


R. Vinitha: None. K. Raghavan: None. V.K. Arun: None. P. Susairaj: None. A. Raghavan: None. A. Nanditha: None. K. Satheesh: None. C. Snehalatha: None. A. Ramachandran: None.

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