Aims: The goals of the current study were to explore the level of and changes in the AH index (AHI, defined as 1,5-anhydroglucitol × glycated hemoglobin A1c/100) associated with different glucose metabolism statuses, and to evaluate the islet function and insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with different AHI levels.

Methods: A total of 3562 individuals were enrolled in the study. According to the 2010 American Diabetes Association (ADA) diagnostic criteria, 1697 subjects were diagnosed as T2DM. The disposition index (DI) was defined as the product of insulin sensitivity-related indexes and islet secretion function.

Results:The overall AHI level was 1.0 (0.7-1.3), while the AHI level of the T2DM group was 0.8 (0.5-1.2), which was significantly lower than that of the normal glucose tolerance group and the impaired glucose regulation group [both AHI 1.2 (0.9-1.5), and P < 0.01]. The T2DM group was further divided into four subgroups according to the quartile of AHI level. The results demonstrated that the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) decreased with the increase of AHI level (P for trend < 0.01). However, other parameters [i.e., HOMA of β-cell function (HOMA-β), insulin generation index, insulin sensitivity index, and DI] increased while AHI level increased (all P for trend < 0.01). Multivariate logistic regression illustrated that the odds ratios for a low DI for increasing levels of AHI were 1.00, 0.22 (0.16-0.29), 0.16 (0.11-0.22), and 0.09 (0.06-0.13), respectively, showing a decreasing trend (P for trend < 0.01).

Conclusion: AHI could reflect the changes in the trend of glucose metabolism disorder and the function of islet β cells to some extent. The lower AHI was associated with worsening of the glucose metabolism disorder in recent years, and the islet β-cell function was correspondingly poor.


X. Ma: None. H. Su: None. Y. Shen: None. X. He: None. L. Ying: None. W. Zhu: None. Y. Wang: None. Y. Bao: None. J. Zhou: None.

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