Background: The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin reduced the risk of first hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) in the CREDENCE trial. The prevention of recurrent events is important to patients, clinicians and payers. In this post-hoc analysis, we evaluated the effect of canagliflozin on total HHF events.

Methods: The CREDENCE trial compared canagliflozin or matching placebo and followed patients for a median of 2.6 years. The study included 4401 participants with type 2 diabetes, substantial albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30 to <90 ml/min/1.73 m2 receiving renin-angiotensin system blockade. Negative binomial regression models were performed to assess the effect of canagliflozin on the total number of HHF events.

Results: The mean age of participants was 63 years, with a mean eGFR of 56.3 ml/min/1.73 m2, while 50% had a history of previous cardiovascular disease and 15% had a history of heart failure. During the trial, 230 people experienced 326 total HHF events, with 166 having 1 event, 43 having 2 events, 15 having 3 events, and 6 having ≥4 events; thus, 42% of those experiencing at least 1 event went on to suffer a recurrent event during the follow up. Canagliflozin reduced first HHF events by 39% (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.47-0.80; P <0.001; number needed to treat [NNT], 46; 95% CI 29-124) and total HHF events by 36% (event rates of 22.0 and 34.8 participants with an event/1000 patient-years with canagliflozin and placebo, respectively; incidence rate ratio [RR], 0.64; 95% CI 0.56-0.73; P <0.001).

Conclusions: Canagliflozin significantly reduced first and recurrent HHF events. These findings provide further support for the benefit of continuing canagliflozin therapy after an index heart failure presentation to prevent recurrent HHF events.


J. Li: Employee; Self; George Institute. M.J. Jardine: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationship field. B. Neal: Research Support; Self; Janssen Research & Development, LLC, Merck Schering Plough, Roche Pharma, Servier, Zydus Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Abbott, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, and Servier. H.L. Heerspink: Consultant; Self; AbbVie Inc., AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, CSL Behring, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck & Co., Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Mundipharma International, Retrophin, Inc. C. Cannon: None. R. Agarwal: Other Relationship; Self; AbbVie Inc., Akebia Therapeutics, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Bird Rock Bio, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Celgene, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly and Company, GlaxoSmithKline plc., Ironwood Pharmaceuticals, Johnson & Johnson, Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, OPKO Health, Inc., Reata, Relypsa, Inc., Sandoz, Sanofi, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, ZS Pharma. G. Bakris: Consultant; Self; Alnylam, Merck & Co., Inc., Relypsa, Inc., Teijin Pharma Limited. Other Relationship; Self; Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk Inc., Vascular Dynamics. D.M. Charytan: Advisory Panel; Self; Allena Pharmaceuticals, AstraZeneca, Merck & Co., Inc., PLC Medical. Employee; Self; BAIM Institute. Research Support; Self; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Baim, Amgen, Medtronic/Covidien, Zoll, Fresenius, Daiichi Sankyo, Douglas and London, Eli Lilly, Merck, Gilead, and Novo Nordisk. D. de Zeeuw: Advisory Panel; Self; AbbVie Inc., Bayer AG, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Fresenius Medical Care, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation. R. Edwards: Employee; Self; Janssen. T. Greene: Other Relationship; Self; Janssen, Durect, and Pfizer. A. Levin: Consultant; Self; Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca K.K., Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Gilead Sciences, Inc. C.A. Pollock: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Research Support; Self; Diabetes Australia. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Cipla Inc., MedErgy, Medscape, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Novartis AG, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Vifor Pharma Group. Other Relationship; Self; Amgen, George Institute for Global Health, Gilead Sciences, Inc., Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. N. Rosenthal: None. D.C. Wheeler: Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Reata. Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Amgen, Astellas Pharma Inc., Mundipharma International, Napp Pharmaceuticals. H. Zhang: Employee; Self; Renal Division of Peking University First Hospital. B. Zinman: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi-Aventis. V. Perkovic: Other Relationship; Self; See Other Relationship field. K.W. Mahaffey: Consultant; Self; Medscape, Mitsubishi, Myokardia, NIH, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Portola, Radiometer, Regeneron, SmartMedics, Springer Publishing, UCSF. Research Support; Self; Afferent, Amgen, Apple, Inc, AstraZeneca, Cardiva Medical, Inc, Daiichi, Ferring, Google (Verily), Johnson & Johnson, Luitpold, Medtronic, Merck, NIH, Novartis, Sanofi, St. Jude, Tenax. C. Arnott: Employee; Self; George Institute for Global Health.


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