Background: Ectopic fat accumulation is the major pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular diseases. To date, no prospective study compared the effects of sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors on ectopic fat accumulation and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity.

Methods: This is the prospective, randomized, open-label, and blind-endpoint study in 44 Japanese patients with T2DM. Patients (HbA1c: 7.2±0.9%, known duration: 3.9±4.0 years, BMI: 29.1±4.8 kg/m2) were randomized to empagliflozin (Empa) add-on group or sitagliptin (Sita) add-on group, and treated for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change of pericardial fat content estimated by magnetic resonance imaging. The secondary endpoints were the changes in the amount of intrahepatic, intra- and extra-myocellular lipid content estimated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity assessed by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp tests using stable isotope.

Results: There was no difference in pericardial fat content between the groups. Interestingly, intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) was reduced significantly from baseline in Empa group compared to Sita (-23.0±26.3 vs. -3.9±19.8%, respectively, p<0.05). However, the change in clamped % suppression of endogenous glucose production was comparable between the groups. On the other hand, rate of glucose disappearance was significantly increased in Empa group compared to Sita (+18.5±55.2 vs. -8.6±20.2%, p<0.05), while the amount of intra- and extra-myocellular lipid content remained similar between the groups.

Conclusion: This is the first study that compared Empa and Sita on ectopic fat content and tissue-specific insulin sensitivity. Empa significantly reduced IHL and increased insulin sensitivity in muscle compared to Sita. SGLT2i might be preferable in treatment of T2DM with hepatic steatosis.

Disclosure

S. Hiruma: None. F. Shigiyama: None. S. Hisatake: None. S. Mizumura: None. N. Shiraga: None. M. Hori: None. T. Ikeda: None. T. Hirose: Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Daiichi Sankyo, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Lilly Diabetes, Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma Co., Ltd. N. Kumashiro: Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Novo Nordisk Inc., Ono Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited.

Funding

Nippon Boehringer Ingelheim Co., Ltd. (1245-0162)

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