Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) are the principal incretins connecting nutrient intake to postprandial insulin secretion. Both GIP and GLP-1 directly stimulate insulin secretion in β-cells through cognate receptors (GIPR; GLP-1R) in a glucose-dependent manner. The GIPR is also expressed on α-cells and GIP stimulates glucagon secretion. α- to β-cell communication, manifest as activation of β-cell GLP-1R by proglucagon peptides (PGDP), dictates the magnitude of the insulin response. We hypothesized that GIPR-stimulation of PGDP enhances insulin secretion through α- to β-cell communication, and that GIPR activity in α-cells is nutrient dependent, similar to β-cells. Mouse islets perifused with GIP or alanine alone doubled their secretion of glucagon, but the combination produced ∼10x glucagon secretion, a synergistic effect that was present at both 2.8 and 10 mM glucose. At 10 mM glucose, GIP plus alanine also had a synergistic effect on insulin secretion. This synergy was abolished by the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-(9-39) indicating that amino acid enhancement of GIP-stimulated insulin secretion is dependent on α- to β-cell communication. In vivo, mice with α-cell deletion of GIPR had normal intraperitoneal and oral glucose tolerance, but impaired glycemic control and reduced insulin secretion in response to a mixed nutrient stimulus, a condition that enhances α-cell activity. Together, these results demonstrate that GIPR activity in α-cells is dependent upon amino acid activation and contributes significantly to insulin secretion through α- to β-cell communication.
K.M. El: None. M. Capozzi: None. S.M. Gray: None. J.L. Brown: None. F.S. Willard: None. P. Emmerson: None. K. Sloop: None. D. D’Alessio: Advisory Panel; Self; Eli Lilly and Company. Consultant; Self; Intarcia Therapeutics. Research Support; Self; Ansh Labs, Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. J. Campbell: Research Support; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk Inc. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
American Diabetes Association (1-17-JDF-074 to J.C.)