Comprehensive knowledge, specific skills, and data-analysis competences are prerequisites of successful use of continuous glucose monitoring systems (CGM). SPECTRUM is a structured and manufacturer-independent training-program for real time CGM (rtCGM) comprising one web-based introduction and six modules (each 90 minutes) of face-to-face group sessions.

SPECTRUM was evaluated longitudinally among adults with type 1 diabetes from 10 diabetes centers. Outcome parameters were rtCGM-knowledge and -skills (rtCGM-Profi-Check), satisfaction with the course, technology acceptance and metabolic control. Initially 120 participants with type 1 diabetes were included (mean age 42.4±13.4 years, diabetes duration 21.6±11.6 years, 56% female, mean HbA1c 7.70±1.34%). Data were collected at study entry, after the final group session, and at 6 months follow-up. The study was completed by 108 patients (10% dropped out, mainly due to scheduling problems).

After training rtCGM knowledge (scale 0-40) improved by 43% (from 21.2±7.6 to 30.4±4.5; p<0.001) and persisted until 6 months follow-up (29.6±4.6). After 6 months HbA1c decreased to 7.58±1.32% (p=0.036). On a scale from 0-14, practical skills were 13.1±1.3 after the program. Satisfaction with SPECTRUM was 1.4±0.5 (1 is good - 6 is bad). Satisfaction with the rtCGM system was 4.2±0.5 (scale from 1 (low) to 5 (high)) and acceptance of the rtCGM system was 87.6±8.2 (scale from 14 (low) to 98 (high)) after the training and 87.0±9.7 at follow up. This indicates a high acceptance, positive attitude, and intension to use rtCGM continuously.

SPECTRUM was shown to be effective in increasing the knowledge and skills about rtCGM in adults with type 1 diabetes. The effect was sustainable and independent from diabetes center and rtCGM-system used. Training participants showed an improvement in glycemic control and improved satisfaction and acceptance of rtCGM.


G. Freckmann: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Sensile Medical AG. Consultant; Self; Beurer, iSens, Metronom Health, Pharmasens, Profusa, Inc., Roche Diabetes Care. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. S. Schlueter: Advisory Panel; Self; A. Menarini Diagnostics, Abbott. Consultant; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Ascensia Diabetes Care, AstraZeneca, Berlin-Chemie AG, Dexcom, Inc., Medtronic, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Diabetes Care, Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Ypsomed AG. Other Relationship; Self; Springer Publishing Company, Verlag Kirchheim & Co. GmbH. P. Wintergerst: None. L. Heinemann: Consultant; Self; Becton, Dickinson and Company, LifeCare, Inc., Roche Diabetes Care. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Profil Institute for Clinical Research. T. Rückert: None. A. Hinz: Research Support; Self; Institut for Diabetestechnologie Ulm, Novo Nordisk A/S. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Berlin-Chemie AG, Eli Lilly and Company. M. Wernsing: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott. Research Support; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. F. Thienel: Research Support; Self; Roche Diabetes Care. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Abbott. T. Biester: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Dexcom, Inc., Medtronic, Roche Diabetes Care, Sanofi, Ypsomed AG. P. von Blanckenburg: None. W. Keuthage: Advisory Panel; Self; Deutschland GmbH, Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Diabetes Care. Board Member; Self; Abbott, Berlin-Chemie AG. R. Ziegler: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Lilly Diabetes, Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Diabetes Care. Consultant; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Diabetes Care. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Abbott, Dexcom, Inc., Novo Nordisk A/S, Roche Diabetes Care. E. Martin: None. M. Holder: None. D. Deiss: Advisory Panel; Self; Abbott, Roche Diabetes Care. Consultant; Self; Senseonics. G. Buchal: None. L. van den Boom: Advisory Panel; Self; Medtronic. K. Lange: Consultant; Self; Abbott, Dexcom, Inc., Medtronic.


Dexcom, Inc.; Roche Diabetes Care; Sanofi; Menarini Group; Kirchheim Verlag; Medtronic

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at