Since 2016, empagliflozin (EFZ) has been known to reduce cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with type 2 diabetes; however, similar label expansions for dapagliflozin (DFZ) and canagliflozin (CFZ) are quite recent. To date, limited evidence has been published comparing these drugs in real-world practice. This retrospective cohort study address that gap, and used administrative claims data from a nationwide Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug and commercial health plan to compare CFZ, EFZ and DFZ on CV outcomes, treatment persistence, healthcare utilization and costs. Eligible patients naïve to the SGLT2 inhibitor drug class for 6 months from January 2015 to June 2017 were identified. Patients had at least 12 months of continuous enrollment pre- and post-index date (i.e., date of first new prescription). Propensity score method using inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to adjust outcomes. A total of 5,503, 2,052 and 587 patients used CFZ, EFZ and DFZ, respectively. Weighted comparisons showed no difference in the risk of primary composite CV outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, or mortality) between treatments, but a lower risk of secondary CV outcome (heart failure or death) in the DFZ cohort (hazard ratio 0.82, 95% CI 0.75-0.88) compared to CFZ. Patients indexed to use EFZ were more likely to remain persistent to treatment (odds ratio [OR] 1.09, 95% CI 1.03-1.16), and patients who used DFZ had lower odds of an emergency department visit encounter (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.79-0.92), relative to the use of CFZ. There were no differences in inpatient hospitalization stays and outpatient services between treatment groups. This population-based study showed minor differences in clinical and cost outcomes between CFZ, EFZ and DFZ, including a post-hoc analysis showing slight variations in use of adjuvant glucose lowering therapies across the SGLT2 inhibitor cohorts. With the ever-evolving landscape of treatment in the care of patients with diabetes, these findings may be helpful to providers.
P. Schwab: Employee; Self; Humana. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Humana. A. Bowe: Employee; Self; Humana. M. Tindal: None. Y.A. Meah: None. I. Poonawalla: None.