Background: It has been proposed that diabetes and chronic kidney disease cause heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) through low-grade inflammation and microvascular endothelial dysfunction. We have previously shown that endothelial enhancement of cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation is mediated by NO, impaired by cytokines, and restored upon treatment with the SGLT2 inhibitor Empagliflozin. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked to diabetes and HFpEF and causes systemic endothelial dysfunction.
Objective: To test the hypothesis that uremic serum from patients with CKD impairs endothelial control of cardiomyocyte contraction and relaxation, and that Empagliflozin protects against this effect.
Methods and Results: Co-culture of rat cardiomyocytes (CM) with human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) enhanced their contraction and relaxation. Pre-treatment with serum from patients with CKD abrogated these effects of CMEC, and treatment of CMECs with Empagliflozin restored the effects of CMECs on CM function. Exposure of CMECs to the uremic serum reduced endothelial NO bioavailability and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species ROS by increasing ROS generation by mitochondria. Uremic serum also increased 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) level, indicating scavenging of NO by ROS. Empagliflozin attenuated uremic serum-induced mitochondrial and intracellular ROS, leading to restoration of endothelial NO bioavailability.
Conclusions: Exposure of CMECs to serum from CKD patients impairs CMEC-mediated enhancement of CM contraction and relaxation. Empagliflozin restores the beneficial effect of CMECs on CM function by reducing mitochondrial oxidative damage, leading to a decrease in intracellular ROS accumulation and increased endothelial NO bioavailability.
R. Juni: None. R. Al-Shama: None. D. Kuster: None. J. van der Velden: None. M. Vervloet: None. W. Paulus: None. E.C. Eringa: None. P. Koolwijk: None. V.W. van Hinsbergh: None.
Netherlands Heart Foundation