Background: Persons with diabetic nephropathy have an increased risk to progress to severe renal failure and have a high cardiovascular risk. To better understand the impact of risk factors on diabetes complications information from diagnosis and onward is needed. Less focus has been on evaluating other risk factors than HbA1c following large populations from diagnosis with repeated measurements. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate risk factors for albuminuria in children and young adults.
Methods: In a population-based cohort study persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D), both children (data from SWEDIABKIDS) and adults (data from Swedish National Diabetes Registry) were included, and followed from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2017. The association between risk factors and albuminuria was evaluated. The gradient of risk per 1 SD (standard deviation) was estimated to compare the impact of each risk factor.
Results: A total of 10398 individuals with T1D were followed, 43.4% female, mean age 14.7 years and mean HbA1c 8.0% (63.4 mmol/mol). HbA1c was the strongest risk factor with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.51 (95% 1.39-1.64, p<0.0001). After adjustment for age, sex and mean HbA1c the OR per 1 SD increase were for mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 1.27 (95% 1.16-1.39, p<0.0001), mean triglycerides 1.21 (95% 1.14-1.28, p<0.0001), mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) 1.21 (95% 1.10-1.33, p<0.0001), mean cholesterol 1.16 (95% 1.07-1.25, p=0.0002) and mean LDL 1.12 (95% 1.03-1.21, p=0.0051). Risk for albuminuria increased at the following levels: SBP 140 mmHg, DBP 80 mmHg, triglycerides >89 mg/dL (>1.0 mmol/L), total cholesterol >193 mg/dL (>5.0 mmol/L), LDL >135 mg/dL (>3.5 mmol/L) and BMI >30 kg/m2. Smoking showed no association.
Conclusion: For individuals with type 1 diabetes, higher HbA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, LDL and cholesterol were the most prominent risk factors for albuminuria. Blood pressure levels 140/80 mmHg were associated with increased risk of albuminuria.
S.S. Ahmadi: None. A. Pivodic: None. A. Svensson: None. H. Wedel: None. J. Ludvigsson: None. M. Lind: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc. Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk Inc. Research Support; Self; Dexcom, Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc.
Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation