T2D in adolescents is associated with an unfavorable lipid profile, but data on lipoprotein particle size and distribution in this population have yet to be published. The TODAY Study, a randomized treatment trial of T2D in youth, provided the opportunity to evaluate lipoprotein particle distribution and relate lipoprotein particle number and size to HbA1C, need for insulin treatment, gender, race/ethnicity, BMI, and blood pressure (BP). TODAY participants (n=348) with yearly samples available for NMR Lipoprofile assessments (baseline, 12, 24, 36 mos) were included. Baseline participant characteristics (mean±SD) were: age 13.7±2.0 yrs; BMI 34.3±7.6 kg/m2; 62.4% female; 20.7% White, 32.2% Non-Hispanic Black (NHB), 43.7% Hispanic. Analysis demonstrated increasing numbers of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles over the three yrs (all ps<0.0001) with somewhat weaker trends for decreasing particle size (LDL p=0.0009, HDL p=0.02). HbA1c showed a strong positive correlation with LDL, VLDL, and HDL particle number (all ps<0.005). HbA1c was negatively associated with LDL (p<0.0001) and HDL size (p=0.001) but positively associated with VLDL size (p<0.0001). Need for insulin treatment did not impact these associations. Female subjects had larger HDL particle size than males at baseline (p=0.0004) and throughout (p<0.0001). NHBs had the largest LDL and HDL particle size and smallest VLDL particle size. BMI% and BP showed positive association with LDL, HDL, and VLDL particle numbers but negative association with LDL and HDL size. The preponderance of lipoprotein parameters were strongly associated with TG/HDL ratio and non-HDL-C after adjusting for baseline age, race, gender, BMI%, BP, and need for insulin treatment (p<0.0001).

In conclusion, these data demonstrate an atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype in youth with T2D and strong relationships with glycemic control and other cardiac risk factors. Concern regarding premature development of atherosclerosis in youth with T2D is warranted.


L.E. Katz: None. J.D. Otvos: Employee; Self; LabCorp. K. Drews: None. B. Tesfaldet: None. F. Bacha: Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Takeda Development Center Americas, Inc. S.M. Willi: Advisory Panel; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH. Research Support; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Tolerion, Inc. Other Relationship; Self; Caladrius Biosciences, Inc. S.M. Marcovina: None. S. Mckay: None. R.S. Weinstock: Board Member; Self; JDRF. Consultant; Self; Insulogic LLC. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Diasome Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Insulet Corporation, Jaeb Center for Health Research, Kowa Research Institute, Inc., Medtronic, Tolerion, Inc.


National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U01DK61212)

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