We evaluated the effectiveness of an intervention for patient-family dyads aimed at improving diabetes self-management and outcomes for adults with T2DM (AWD) at risk for complications. AWD were randomized with a family supporter to an intervention vs. usual care for 12 months. The intervention provided dyads: one health coaching session, biweekly automated phone calls to prompt action plans on new diabetes health concerns, coaching calls to prepare for medical visits, and medical visit summaries. 239 AWD-supporter dyads were enrolled at two Veterans Health Administration sites. AWD eligibility criteria included baseline HbA1c>8% or systolic blood pressure (SBP)>150mmHg. Intention-to-treat analyses of changes in outcomes were adjusted for baseline outcome levels, patient-supporter cohabitation, and patients’ baseline insulin use. 96% of dyads had complete 12-month outcome data. Enrolled patients were on average 60±9 years old and had HbA1c levels of 8.5±1.6% and SBP 140mmHg (IQR 128,150). 70% lived with their supporter. Over 12 months, Patient Activation Measure scores (pre-specified primary outcome) increased significantly more in the intervention group (intervention effect +2.6 points (95%CI 0.005, 5.149). There were no statistically significant differences by arm in diabetes-specific cardiac risk score, HbA1c, or SBP change. Patient self-reported adherence to healthy eating increased significantly more in the intervention group (intervention effect +0.7 days/week (95% CI 0.2, 1.2) but not for other self-management behaviors. 97% of patients and 94% of supporters in the intervention group agreed they would recommend the program to others. This family supporter-patient dyadic intervention successfully increased patient activation and one health behavior but not physiologic outcomes over a 12 month period. Improving sustained engagement of family supporters in care of diabetes for adults is feasible and could serve as an additional source of support for diabetes care.
A. Rosland: None. J. Piette: None. R.B. Trivedi: None. A.A. Lee: None. S.C. Stoll: None. M.K. Mor: None. D. Obrosky: None. E.A. Kerr: Advisory Panel; Self; Bind Insurance. M. Heisler: None.
Health Services Research and Development (IIR 14–074-1); Michigan Center for Diabetes Translational Research (5P60-DK09292); Michigan Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center (AG-024824); VA Ann Arbor Center for Clinical Management Research