Hispanics have a 66% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D), and exhibit worse outcomes than non-Hispanic whites. Many Hispanics lack access to diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) due to practical, cultural, and other barriers. Mobile health (mHealth) technology has the potential to circumvent such barriers and expand the reach of DSME/S. A 3-group, randomized controlled trial is currently underway to evaluate the effectiveness of mHealth DSME/S approaches in improving diabetes outcomes among predominantly low income, Hispanic adults with T2D and HbA1c ≥ 8% at a Federally Qualified Health Center in Southern California. Dulce Digital-Me (DD-Me) is an adaptive mHealth intervention that integrates educational text messaging with personalized goal-setting and feedback. Over 6 months, participants receive 2-3 messages/day, and are provided with a glucometer and pillbox that wirelessly transmit real-time data to a cloud. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) gauges progress in healthful eating, exercise, and emotional well-being. Participants’ progress in lifestyle changes, medication adherence, and BG monitoring frequency and control is compared to pre-defined targets. Real-time feedback is delivered via automated, algorithm-driven messaging or by medical assistant Health Coach (n = 104 in each group). The control group (n = 207) receives educational text messages alone. Preliminary analyses (N = 163) showed higher BG monitoring frequency in the DD-Me Health Coach group (M = 7.02 ± 0.45 checks/week) versus the DD-Me algorithm-driven (M = 4.80 ± 0.49) and control groups (M = 5.25 ± 0.65), p <.01. Trends towards better medication adherence in the DD-Me groups (M = 6.78 ± 0.60 pillbox openings/week) relative to control (M = 5.40 ± 0.53) were also observed (p = 0.15). Focus groups revealed high satisfaction with the intervention. DD-Me will provide guidance on how to optimize digital health approaches for at-risk, underserved patients with diabetes.
A.L. Fortmann: None. A. Philis-Tsimikas: Advisory Panel; Self; Lilly Diabetes, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Ionis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Dexcom, Inc., Lilly Diabetes, Medtronic, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi. S.R.S. Bagsic: None. D.G. Vital: None. J.A. Jones: None. H. Sandoval: None. K.L. Savin: None. T. Clark: None. K. Luu: None. J.G. Godino: None. L. Gallo: None.
National Institutes of Health (1R01DK112322)