Identification of healthy dietary patterns associated with reduced diabetes risk may contribute to diabetes prevention initiatives. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether there is an association between different dietary patterns and incident diabetes in an Australian population. We analysed data of 5,916 eligible Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (MCCS) participants, who contributed 343836.6 person-years of follow up with an average 9.4±3.7 years. Dietary patterns for individuals were assessed with three commonly used indices namely, Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-10 (AHEI-10) and the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess the associations between dietary indices and diabetes risk, adjusted for plausible confounders both with and without baseline body size. At baseline, the average age of the cohort was 55.1 ±8.7 years and 59.9% were female. The incidence rate of diabetes was 4.8 (95% CI 4.6, 5.1) per 1000 person-years. Adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, family history of diabetes, physical activity status, smoking and alcohol consumption status, DII quintile 5 (HR 1.2; 95%CI 1.1, 1.5) and AEHI quintile 5 (HR 0.63; 95%CI 0.53, 0.75)) showed significant associations with diabetes. After additionally adjusting for BMI (HR 0.75; 95%CI 0.74, 0.76) or WHR (HR 0.72; 95%CI 0.71, 0.74), AHEI showed statistically significant inverse associations with diabetes risk. A healthier diet, as assessed by AHEI-10, was associated with a lower risk of diabetes incidence in the MCCS, and this did not appear to be completely explained by an association between diet quality and body size.
B. de Courten: None. M. Karim: None. A. Hodge: None.