Background: We hypothesized that dietary carbohydrate reduction will add to the effect of a diet-induced 6% body-weight loss on glycemic control and hepatic fat content in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods: Forty-four persons of mean HbA1c 56.4 mmol/mol and 9 years of T2D were randomized 1:1 for 6-weeks full food provision, a hypo-caloric carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP) or a conventional diabetes (CD) diet (carbohydrate 30E%/50E%, protein 30E%/17E% and fat 40E%/33E%). Body-weight loss was aimed at 6% and reinforced bi-weekly by adjustment of hypo-caloric diets. Hepatic fat content was estimated by Magnetic Resonance (MR) spectroscopy and analyzed by a MR research technician, blinded to the protocol.
Results: Six weeks of a hypo-caloric CRHP diet compared with a CD diet improved HbA1c (mean±SD) by further 2 mmol/mol (-8.7±4.6 mmol/mol vs. -6.7±3.9 mmol/mol, p=0.04) with comparable weight losses, 5.5±1.7 kg (5.6 %) and 5.6±2.2 kg (5.9 %) of body-weight, respectively. Hepatic fat content (median (IQR) was reduced significantly while consuming the CRHP diet (5.2% (1.3-6.9)) and CD diet (2.6% (1.6-6.5)), but with no difference between diets (p=0.40).
Conclusion: Reducing carbohydrate and increasing protein and fat adds clinical relevance to the positive effects of body-weight loss on glucose control in T2D patients.
M.N. Thomsen: None. M.J. Skytte: None. A. Samkani: None. M.H. Carl: None. P. Weber: None. A. Astrup: Advisory Panel; Self; Gelesis, Novo Nordisk A/S, Saniona, Weight Watchers International, Inc. Research Support; Self; Arla Food for Health, Gelesis, Novo Nordisk A/S. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Arla Food for Health. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Gelesis. T.M. Larsen: Advisory Panel; Self; Advisor for Sense diet programme. J. Frystyk: None. J.J. Holst: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk A/S, Zealand Pharma A/S. Other Relationship; Spouse/Partner; Antag Therapeutics. B. Hartmann: None. H. Thomsen: None. E. Chabanova: None. S. Madsbad: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi-Aventis. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Novo Nordisk A/S. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Novo Nordisk A/S. S.B. Haugaard: None. T. Krarup: None.