Aim: To assess whether postprandial glucose responses (PPGRs) are individual in people with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and influenced by personal physiological and clinical parameters.

Methods: We assessed physiological and clinical parameters of one-hundred and twenty individuals with type 1 diabetes (mean±SD: Age 31±7years, BMI 26.9±2.3kg.m2, HbA1c 7.6±0.8% [55.8±8.2mmol/moL]) and captured postprandial interstitial glucose responses via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) in response to two carbohydrate-based standardised meals (shredded wheat [SW] or millet oat-porridge [OP]), twice, on four separate occasions. Each meal was matched for energy, fibre, and macronutrient composition, glycaemic index (GI), and insulin administration.

Results: Despite identical energy, fibre, and macronutrient content, GI, and prandial insulin administration, the average PPGR differed significantly between OP and SW, respectively (IG AUC: 1807±588 vs. 1678±533 mmol.L.min-1; p=0.05). PPGRs to each meal type showed a high degree of reproducibility within individuals (OP r=0.994, p<0.001 vs. SW r=0.987 p<0.001), but large interpersonal variation within each meal type (CV%: OP 32.5% vs. SW 31.7%). Higher PPGR was positively associated with PPGR variability (r=0.698, p<0.001), HbA1c (r=0.223, p=0.014), BMI (r=0.316, p<0.001), and age (r=0.277, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Using a total of 19,200 glucose measurements, we show that PPGR in individuals with type 1 diabetes is interpersonal and influenced by BMI, age, and HbA1c. We show that identification of personal characteristics is a promising means for designing effective nutritional interventions to predict and control glycaemic responses to food in this population.


C.F.B. Dingena: None. A. Marsh: None. R. Ajjan: Advisory Panel; Self; Eli Lilly and Company, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk Inc., Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited. Other Relationship; Self; Abbott. M. Campbell: None.

Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. More information is available at