Objective: Program ACTIVE II was a randomized controlled trial to assess the comparative effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and/or community-based exercise (EXER) individually and in combination (EXER+CBT) compared to usual care (UC) in adults with type 2 diabetes and major depression. We sought to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the three interventions relative to each other and to UC.
Research Design and Methods: Empirical trial data were integrated into the Michigan Model for Diabetes to estimate cost and health outcomes over a 10-year time horizon from the healthcare sector and societal perspectives, discounting both costs and benefits at 3% annually. The primary outcome was costs per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
Results: From the healthcare sector perspective, compared to UC, the EXER intervention saved $313 per patient and produced 0.38 more QALY (cost-saving), the CBT intervention cost $596 more and gained 0.29 more QALY ($2,054/QALY), and the EXER+CBT intervention cost $403 more and gained 0.69 more QALY ($585/QALY). Both EXER and EXER+CBT interventions dominated the CBT intervention. Compared to EXER, the EXER+CBT intervention cost $716 more and gained 0.31 more QALY ($2,323/QALY). From the societal perspective, compared to UC, the EXER intervention still saved $126, the CBT intervention cost $2,833/QALY, and the EXER+CBT intervention cost $1,167/QALY. Both EXER and EXER+CBT interventions still dominated the CBT intervention. Compared to EXER, the EXER+CBT intervention cost $3,021/QALY. Results were robust in sensitivity analyses.
Conclusions: All three Program ACTIVE II interventions represented a good value for money compared to UC. The EXER+CBT intervention was highly cost-effective or cost-saving compared to the EXER or CBT intervention.
S. Kuo: None. W. Ye: Research Support; Self; Bayer Healthcare Pharmaceuticals Inc. M. de Groot: Consultant; Self; Kenner Family Foundation, Inc., LifeScan Diabetes Institute. J.H. Shubrook: Advisory Panel; Self; Bayer U.S., Eli Lilly and Company, Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi US. W. Hornsby: None. Y. Pillay: None. K.J. Mather: Research Support; Self; Abbott, Merck & Co., Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi. W.H. Herman: Consultant; Spouse/Partner; Nestlé. Other Relationship; Self; Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (R18DK092765, R34DK071545)