The global PIONEER program investigated the efficacy and safety of oral semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to once-daily oral semaglutide (3, 7 or 14 mg, or flexibly dosed [flex]), placebo, or active comparator (empagliflozin 25 mg, sitagliptin 100 mg or liraglutide 1.8 mg). This exploratory subgroup analysis evaluated the effect of race on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and body weight (BW) reductions at the end of treatment (week 26, 52 or 78). Data were analyzed from PIONEER 1-5, 7 and 8 by race (White, Asian, Black/African American). Baseline characteristics were generally similar across subgroups except for BW, which was lower in Asian patients. Generally, greater HbA1c reductions were observed with oral semaglutide 14 mg/flex vs. comparators across subgroups (Table). In PIONEER 1, 4 and 8, there was a significant interaction between treatment and race, with greater HbA1c reductions and estimated treatment differences in Asian patients than in other subgroups (Table). Overall, BW reductions were greater for oral semaglutide vs. comparators, regardless of subgroup and without significant interactions between treatment and race. Our findings in this exploratory subgroup analysis suggest that, in some PIONEER trials, Asian patients achieve greater HbA1c reductions than other race groups when treated with oral semaglutide.


C. Desouza: Consultant; Self; AstraZeneca, Bayer AG, Novo Nordisk A/S. A. Amod: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Lilly Diabetes, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier. Consultant; Self; Servier. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., Lilly Diabetes, Novo Nordisk A/S, Sanofi-Aventis, Servier. K. Kallenbach: None. P.J. Lin: Speaker’s Bureau; Self; Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bausch + Lomb, Bayer Inc., Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada) Ltd., Eli Lilly and Company, Mead Johnson Nutrition, Merck & Co., Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. Other Relationship; Self; Elsevier. M. Abildlund Nielsen: Employee; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. Stock/Shareholder; Spouse/Partner; Novo Nordisk A/S. R. Sørrig: Employee; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. E. Montanya: Advisory Panel; Self; Sanofi. Consultant; Self; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation. Employee; Spouse/Partner; Almirall. Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp., Novo Nordisk A/S.


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