Injectable therapy initiation in T2D is often delayed. This retrospective cohort study evaluated the impact of the timing of initiating both basal insulin and GLP-1 RA in people with uncontrolled T2D (HbA1c ≥9 %) on OADs within 12 months (Optum Humedica database of electronic medical records and claims; 1/1/2011 to 6/30/2017). Study cohorts were defined by the days between initiating the first and second injectable: cohort A ≤30 (simultaneous); B 31-90; C 91-180; D 181-270; E 271-360 (sequential). Endpoints: proportion achieving HbA1c <7 % or <8 % and achieving ≥1 % or ≥2 % reduction in HbA1c at 6 and 12 months after initiating the second injectable. Baseline characteristics (N=6339): mean ± SD age 54 ± 11 years; HbA1c 10.7 ± 1.5 %; weight 108 ± 25 kg; 47% male. Despite slightly higher baseline HbA1c, cohort A had the best glycemic outcomes at 6 and 12 months for all 4 endpoints, followed by cohort B, then no difference between C, D and E (Table). Cohorts C, D and E were significantly less likely to achieve HbA1c <7 % than cohort A (hazard ratios [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.53-0.72]; 0.62 [0.53-0.72]; 0.63 [0.54-0.73]), but cohort B was not (0.87 [0.76-1.01]).

In summary, despite higher baseline HbA1c, addition of a second injectable agent within 90 days of the first led to significantly better glycemic control at 12 months than postponing addition to later in the year in uncontrolled T2D.


J. Rosenstock: Research Support; Self; AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, Inc., GlaxoSmithKline plc., Lexicon Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Oramed Pharmaceuticals, PegBio Co., Ltd., Pfizer Inc., REMD Biotherapeutics. Other Relationship; Self; Applied Therapeutics, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Eli Lilly and Company, Intarcia Therapeutics, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi. F. Ampudia Blasco: None. R. Lubwama: Employee; Self; Sanofi US. X.V. Peng: Employee; Self; Sanofi. A.H. Boss: Employee; Self; Sanofi. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi. L. Shi: None. V. Fonseca: Consultant; Self; Abbott, Asahi Kasei Corporation, AstraZeneca, Bayer Inc., Novo Nordisk Inc., Sanofi. Research Support; Self; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Stock/Shareholder; Self; Amgen, Bravo4health.



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