Objective: Contrasting results have been reported for the association between the variability in body weight and development of diabetes. No study has elucidated the association between the variability in body weight and the development of type 2 diabetes in a population without obesity and without body weight gain or loss during the study period. In the present study, we evaluated the association between the variability in body mass index (BMI) and development of type 2 diabetes in 19,412 Japanese participants without obesity and without body weight gain or loss during the study period.
Methods: We recorded body weight of the participants consecutively each year in Panasonic Corporation, Osaka, Japan from 2008 to 2014 to evaluate the variability of BMI. The participants with obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) at baseline and body weight gain or loss from 2008 to 2014 (delta BMI ≥ ± 1 kg/m2) were excluded from the study. We used coefficient of variation (CV) to represent the variability in BMI during 6 years of the study period.
Results: In total, 416 participants among all participants (315 participants among those without IFG at baseline) developed type 2 diabetes from 2015 to 2018. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes was higher in the fourth quartile of CV of BMI than that in the lowest quartile (first quartile; reference) of CV of BMI in all participants and in those without IFG at baseline (hazard ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.01-1.75 and hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.10-2.08, respectively). The risk for developing diabetes increased by 11.1% and 15.0% per 1% increase in CV of BMI in all participants and in those without IFG at baseline, respectively. Age, BMI at baseline, HDL cholesterol, glucose, current smoking habit, and fast eaters were also associated with the increased odds of developing type 2 diabetes.
Conclusions: In conclusion, the variability in BMI is a risk factor for the development of diabetes in the Japanese population.
H. Okada: None. M. Hamaguchi: Research Support; Spouse/Partner; AstraZeneca K. K. M. Fukui: None.