Background: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in the body with metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obesity, and cardiovascular disease. However, no significant evidence has been found till date exhibiting their association epidemiologically in Indian patients.
Objective: To assess the association among NAFLD, T2DM, and obesity, and to validate the scoring system with grades of fatty liver (severity of liver disease) estimated by ultrasound vs. NAFLD fibrosis score, BARD score, and APRI score.
Methodology: A retrospective, observational study was conducted out in patients with NAFLD (n=316) where diagnosis and grades of fatty liver were established via ultrasound reports. The patients were divided into two groups, Group A (n=114, NAFLD with T2DM) and Group B (n=202, NAFLD without T2DM). R 4.0.0 was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The mean age (in years) of the patients was 54.08 ± 10.78 in Group A and 48.10 ± 15.36 in Group B. The mean BMI in Group A was found to be slightly higher as compared to Group B, 27.49 ± 4.94 and 26.56 ± 4.68 respectively, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p-value <0.05). The overall predictive ability of the NAFLD scoring system matched that to ultrasonography liver grading fibrosis report for approximately 53% of patients. The BARD scoring system was found to be matched with ultrasonography reported Grade-1 fatty liver (198/316). In the case of the APRI scoring system, the association was not observed with ultrasonography reports in any grades of fatty liver.
Conclusion: BMI might be an independent risk factor for NAFLD. NAFLD fibrosis score appears to be a reliable non-invasive tool to determine the severity of liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. BARD score may predict Grade 1 liver fibrosis. However, APRI scores do not correlate with imaging evidence of fibrosis like NAFLD and BARD scores.
M. Saran: None. J. K. Sharma: None. A. Ranjan: None. S. Deka: None. M. Sabharwal: Employee; Self; Health Arx Technologies Pvt. Ltd. S. Palukuri: None. B. Chandolia: None.