Objective: Elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), excess small dense LDL particles (LDL5) and decreased HDL2/HDL3 ratio promote atherogenesis in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Carbohydrate restriction reduced intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content beyond the positive effect of weight loss in a group of T2D patients, the present study sought to determine whether parallel improvements in lipoprotein density profiles occurred in these same patients.

Research Design and Methods: Seventy-two adult T2D patients with a mean BMI of 33 kg/m2 were assigned to 6 weeks of fully-provided hypocaloric dietary treatment aimed at ~6% weight loss, either with a carbohydrate-reduced high-protein (CRHP, C30E%/P30E%/F40E%) diet or a conventional diabetes (CD, C50E%/P17E%/F33E%) diet. Density profiles of lipoproteins were determined by ultracentrifugation of fluorescently labelled plasma. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to assess IHTG.

Results: Body weight decreased by 5.8 kg (~6%) in both groups. Compared with the CD diet, the CRHP diet reduced TRL (mean [95% CI]) by -16 [-30;1]% (p=0.07) and LDL5 by -13 [-22;-3]% (p=0.01), and increased HDL2/HDL3 by 11 [1;22]% (p=0.04). The CRHP diet also decreased IHTG more than the CD diet (-26 [-45;0]%, p=0.05), and changes in IHTG including both groups correlated significantly with changes in TRL and LDL5 (Spearman’s ρ 0.39 and 0.38, p<0.01).

Conclusions: Carbohydrate restriction adds to the positive effect of weight loss in T2D patients by inducing greater improvements in atherogenic lipid profile, maybe facilitated by a reduction in intrahepatic fat.


M. N. Thomsen: None. S. Madsbad: Advisory Panel; Self; AstraZeneca; Boehringer Ingelheim; Eli Lilly; Merck Sharp & Dohme; Novo Nordisk; Sanofi, Research Support; Self; Novo Nordisk, Boehringer Ingelheim, Speaker’s Bureau; Self; AstraZeneca; Boehringer Ingelheim; Merck Sharp & Dohme; Novo Nordisk; Sanofi. F. Magkos: None. H. S. Thomsen: None. R. Walzem: None. S. B. Haugaard: None. T. Krarup: None. M. J. Skytte: None. A. Samkani: None. A. Astrup: Consultant; Self; Groupe Éthique et Santé, France, Employee; Self; Novo Nordisk Foundation, Other Relationship; Self; Flaxslim ApS, Denmark, Gelesis, Personalized Weight Management Research Consortium ApS (Gluco-Diet. dk). J. Frystyk: None. E. Chabanova: None. B. Hartmann: None. J. J. Holst: Consultant; Self; Novo Nordisk, Other Relationship; Self; Antag Therapeutics, Bainan Biotech, MSD Corporation, Novo Nordisk, Other Relationship; Spouse/Partner; Antag Therapeutics, Bainan Biotech, Synklino ApS. T. M. Larsen: None.


Arla Foods; Danish Dairy Research Foundation

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