Objectives: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the causal relationship between NAFLD and the development of CKD is uncertain, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the association between the presence and severity of NAFLD and incident CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Research Design and Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes, 3,188 patients with preserved renal function were followed for the occurrence of incident CKD. NAFLD was defined as the presence of hepatic steatosis on ultrasonography without any other causes of chronic liver diseases. Advanced liver fibrosis of NAFLD was defined as NAFLD fibrosis score >0.675. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Results: At baseline, 1,729 (54.2%) patients had NAFLD, of whom 94 (5.4%) had advanced liver fibrosis. During the follow-up of 8.3 ± 3.6 years, 472 (14.8%) patients developed incident CKD, 220 (15.1%) in the non-NAFLD group, 226 (12.8%) in the hepatic steatosis alone group and 26 (27.7%) in the advanced liver fibrosis group. There was no increased risk of incident CKD in the NAFLD group compared with the non-NAFLD group (p = 0.79). However, among patients with NAFLD, advanced liver fibrosis was associated with an increased risk of CKD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.78 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.76), p=0.011).
Conclusions: Advanced liver fibrosis in NAFLD is independently associated with an increased risk of incident CKD in patients with type 2 diabetes.
D. Seo: None. Y. Cho: None. S. Ahn: None. S. Seo: None. S. Hong: None. Y. Lee: None. S. Kim: None.
National Research Foiundation (2017R1D-1A1B03034581)