Type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease (CD) are autoimmune diseases with shared genetic risk and are increasing in prevalence in the US. As CD is often under-diagnosed in the setting of T1D, additional data on the prevalence and characteristics of CD and potentially undiagnosed CD in youth with T1D is needed.
In 2,442 youth with T1D in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study we assessed self-reported CD via questionnaire and potentially undiagnosed CD by IgA tissue transglutaminase autoantibody assays (TGA). Groups were defined as 1) CD (based on self-reported CD), 2) potentially undiagnosed CD, (no self-reported CD and elevated TGA), 3) no CD (T1D controls). Patient characteristics were compared between CD and controls, and between potentially undiagnosed CD and controls. Coexisting autoimmune diseases were also assessed.
The prevalence of self-reported CD was 6.9% and potentially undiagnosed CD was 4.1%. Youth with T1D and CD or potentially undiagnosed CD were more likely to be younger at T1D diagnosis and female compared with controls. Youth with T1D and CD were more likely to be Non-Hispanic white and to have co-existing autoimmune diseases compared with controls, all p<0.05 (Table).
CD and, importantly, undiagnosed CD are seen in youth with T1D. Youth with combined disease are at high risk for additional co-autoimmune diseases.
R. Brady: None. A. Honor: None. D. J. Pettitt: None. L. Merjaneh: None. D. Dabelea: None. A. S. Shah: None. E. T. Jensen: None. J. Rigdon: None. N. A. Crimmins: None. D. Mallon: Other Relationship; Self; Total Travel and Events. L. M. Dolan: None. G. Imperatore: None. A. Kahkoska: Other Relationship; Self; Novo Nordisk A/S. A. K. Mottl: Advisory Panel; Self; Bayer U. S.